The General Body assembled on 05-08-2016 (Fifth day of August Month of the year two thousand sixteen) at 4.00 p.m. at Basheerbagh Press Club Hyderabad has collectively and unanimously passed the resolution to adopt the name of the Party as BAHUJANA RASHTRA SAMITHI. Similarities in the name of the Party with any other Political Parties are not intentional but are in consonance with permissibility of the Constitution of India. The name of the Party BAHUJANA RASHTRA SAMITHI has no Religious, Communal or Cast connotations.
PRINCIPLES POLICIES AND AIMS:
The BAHUJANA RASHTRA SAMITHI Party shall bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by Law established, and to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
BRS party will not, in any manner, promotes or instigates or participates in violence.
BRS party will hold Elections to Central Executive Committee every 4 (Four) years. Regular election (once in every two years) to all positions of Village, Mandal, Constituency and District Committees of the Party shall be held as and when they become due.
Anti-Fascist movement strives to fulfill the aspirations of a broad democratic secular culture. This has to be based on a very broad understanding for attaining development with human dignity and a relentless fight against communalism and corruption. This will require oppressed, exploited and minority people. This anti-Fascist movement has to be constituted by democratic process advocated by Ambedkar-Perriyar-Phule-Kanshiram. If we are of clear conscious, democratic and sensitive and determined, the Bahujan people shall overcome all odds and ultimately be victorious against the dark and evil forces facing, confronting and threatening Bahujans, the majority people of India.
The Scholars and the common people of the Country have realized that the Political Parties in India are working to help the Capitalists to corner the resources of the Country on quid pro quo basis and stacking the wealth of the Country in Foreign Countries. The bureaucratic machinery since the time of Independence of the Country is only good for playing hand in glove with the Corrupt Politicians and Industrialists and also themselves grow Rich. The intelligent People are helping Common People to realize the importance of Politics in their lives. They convince them to resolve, “IF POLITICS DECIDE OUR FUTURE WE WILL DECIDE OUR (FUTURE) POLITICS.” The youth of the Country is getting prepared to take control of the Administration of the Country and lead it to become the Most Powerful Economy of the World without sacrificing the welfare of the people from the poorest of the poor to richest of the rich within the already existing Rules and Regulations of the Country. Many selfless youth of the Country are ready to work for Development of the Poor without yielding to temptations and appeasements of the riches.
Formation of political party, BAHUJANA RASHTRA SAMITHI takes effect from today i.e., 05th August 2016 with Head Office at Hyderabad Plot No. 34/2, Lalithanagar, West Marredpally, Secunderabad – 500026 as address for communication.
Bahujana Rashtra Samithi Party shall have the following Branches:
National Level Committees :
- National Councils
- National Executives
State Level Committees :
- State Level Councils
- State Level Executives
District Level Committees:
- District Level Councils
- District Level Executives
City/Town Level Committees :
- City/Town Level Councils
- City/Town Level Executives
Constituency Level Committees :
- Constituency Area Level Councils
- Constituency Area Level Executives
Primary Level Committees:
- Polling Booth Area Level shall be considered as Primary Level.
- The Word STATE referred to in this Constitution shall represent also the Areas administered by the Central Government and Union Territories.
- Committees of Towns with 3 Lakh Population shall be considered as Isolated District Level Committees.
State Level Party Units:
- State Level Units of the Bahujana Rashtra Samithi Party shall be formed in the States and Union Territories indicated in the first Schedule of the Constitution of India.
- The Head offices of the State Party Units shall be located in the Capital City of the respective State.
- Party Units in the Metropolitan Cities should be treated on par with State Level Party Committees.
- Membership of the Party shall be open to all Adult Citizen of India above the age of 18 irrespective of Caste Creed and Religion without discrimination based on Language, Region and Sex and that they enroll by payment of Rs. 10/- as Membership Fee for Two Years and Primarily they accept the Party Policies, Principles and Aims as detailed in Article II above and finally they are not Members of any other Political Parties and Organizations that do not express confidence/allegiance in/to the Constitution of India.
- Members, in the Beginning of the Party, enrolling 50 members and Pay fee of Rs. 500/- shall be Active Members of the Party.
- Duration of the Membership shall be for Two Years starting from April 1st ending with 31st March of the Second Year.
- Collected Membership Fees shall be distributed among the different Committees as follows:
National Committee 25%
State Committee 25%
District/City Municipality/Metro City 25%
Constituency Committee 25%
Total amount collected on account of Membership Fee shall be deposited to the Account of the State Level Committee and distribution of the funds as described above shall be carried out after the Elections for the Committees at Different Levels.
- Office Bearers of the National Committee should remit Rs.10000/ per Annum, Members of the National Committee deposit Rs.5,000/- Office Bearers of State Level Committee deposit Rs. 5,000/- and Members deposit Rs. 2,000/- Office Bearers of City, Town, Municipality deposit Rs. 1,000/- Members deposit Rs. 500/- Office Bearers of Constituency Committees deposit Rs. 500/- and Members deposit Rs. 200/- to the Party Account, every year. Office Bearers and Members failed to remit the contributions within the time limit specified by the Party will automatically lose their Membership.
TENURE OF COMMITTEES:
The Term of all Office Bearers of every Council and every Committee shall be TWO YEARS.
LIST OF MEMBERS:
- At District Level, the separate lists of Members at the Beginning of the Party and Active Members will be maintained under the supervision of the President of the District.
- Written complaints of Bogus or Fake Memberships and the Facts are made to the District President, State President or National President, the District President will enquire into the complaint and report to the State President. The State President by himself or on the directions of the National President will enquire in to the matter as felt suitable. If the person proved to have resorted to Bogus/fake Membership, he will be treated as unfit for any post in the Party. An appeal can be made to the National President against the decision of the State President. National President can order for hearing of the case by himself or by Members selected by him for the purpose. Decision of the National President is FINAL and BINDING. Issue of Membership cannot be taken to any Court of Law.
- In the Members List, the Name of the Member, Permanent Address, Date of Enrolment and the Serial Number of the Form will be noted.
- Membership will be ceased from the Date of the Death or on Resignation or from the Date of Expulsion or nonpayment of Biennial Fee.
Qualifications for Voters and Candidates
- Every primary member, included on the primary members’ roll prepared in accordance with the rules framed in this behalf by the National Executive, shall be entitled to vote in the election to the Primary Committee;
- Only an active member, whose name has been entered in the Register or list of active members, shall be eligible for election to any Council or Executive above the level of the Primary Unit;
- No office bearer shall be eligible to hold the same office for a third consecutive term.
- The National Executive and the Executives at the State and lower levels may co-opt up to 10% of the total membership of the National Council, State and other lower level Councils concerned.
- A co-opted member of the National Council and the Councils at the State and lower levels shall not exercise any voting right in any organizational election nor shall he/she contest any election in the organization. However, no person who is a co-opted member shall be debarred for that reason, from seeking election to full membership of any Committee in the normal manner.
- In the constitution of an election to the Councils, Committees and office bearers at the block level and above, it shall be ensured that the backward castes, Scheduled Castes/Tribes minorities and women shall be given not less than 80% representation in a manner that at least one member from each of the above categories is included therein.
Formation of Committees:
- Primary Committee: (i) A Primary Unit may be set up in an area co terminus with a Gram Panchayat or a Ward or a Mohalla or a Polling Station or any such area as may be decided by the District Council where there are at least one active member and 25 primary members.
(ii) A Primary Committee shall consist of a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 11 members, including the President elected by the Primary members of the Unit.
(iii) The President of a Primary Committee shall be an active member of the party
(iv) The President may appoint a Secretary from among the members of the Committee.
- Block or Tehsil or Constituency Council: A Block or Tehsil or Constituency Council shall consist of:
(i) Members elected by the primary units, within the area of the Block or Tehsil or Constituency Council at the rate of one member per primary unit having a primary membership of up to one hundred and two members, if the membership is more than a hundred,
(ii) Ten representatives elected by Party members in Panchayat Samithis or municipal bodies situated within the area of the Block or Tehsil or Constituency Council, from amongst themselves.
(iii) Co-opted members.
- No Block or Tehsil Constituency Council shall be set up unless 50% of the Primary Committees are duly constituted in its area.
- A Block or Tehsil or Constituency Executive shall consist of 15 members including the President elected by the members of the Block or Tehsil or Constituency Council, in accordance with the rules prescribed. The President shall appoint Secretaries from among the members of the Block or Tehsil or Constituency Executive.
- The President of the Block or Tehsil or Constituency Unit shall convene a meeting of the office bearers of the Primary units in its area at least once in three months.
- 1. A District Council shall consist of:
(i) Members of the Block or Tehsil or Constituency Executive, falling within its jurisdiction;
(ii) Members elected, in accordance with the rules prescribed from the local bodies situated within the area of the District Council, not exceeding 100 of the total number of party members in such bodies;
(iii) Ex-Presidents of the District Council who have completed one full term and are active members;
(iv) Members of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in legislatures both Central and State from the District;
(v) Leaders of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in Municipal Corporations, Municipalities and District Boards, Zila Parishad or Janapada in the District.
(vi) Co-opted members.
- No District Unit shall be set up unless 50% of the intermediate units are duly constituted in its area:
- A District Executive shall consist of not more than 51 members, including the President elected by the members of the District Council in accordance with the rules prescribed. The President shall appoint the following office bearers from among the members of the District Executive:
(i) Three Vice-Presidents.
(ii) A Treasurer.
(iii) Not more than five Secretaries.
- The District President shall convene a meeting of the office bearers of intermediate units in its area at least once in three months.
- The State Council shall consist of:
(i) Representatives elected by the District Councils at the rate of one per each Assembly or Metropolitan Constituency;
(ii) All members of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in the State Legislature concerned and all members of Parliament from that State;
(iii) Ex-Presidents of the State Council who have served a full term and are active members of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi;
(iv) The Leader of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in the State Legislature;
(v) Presidents of the District Councils provided that they shall not be eligible to become either the President or the Secretary of the State Bahujana Rashtra Samithi;
(vi) The National Council Members who reside in the State;
(vii) Co-opted members.
- No State Council shall be set up unless 50% of the District Units are duly constituted in its area;
- Every member of the State Council shall pay a biennial fee of Rs. 50 to the State Council;
- The State Executive shall consist of not more than 65 members (including the President), elected by the State Council in accordance with the Rules prescribed. The President shall appoint the following office-bearers from among the members of the State Executive:
(i) Not more than five Vice-presidents;
(iv) Not more than ten General Secretaries;
(v) Not more than ten Secretaries;
The Leader of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in the State legislature shall be ex officio member of the State Executive.
- The State President shall convene a meeting of the office-bearers of the District Units in its area at least once in six months.
- The National Council shall consist of:
(i) Representatives elected by the members of State Council, equivalent to the number of Lok Sabha members which the State is entitled to elect proportional representation, with the single transferable vote;
(ii) Presidents of the State Council and Presidents of the District Councils, Leaders of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in State Legislatures and Delhi Metropolitan Council and the Leader of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in Parliament;
(iii) All members of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in Parliament;
(iv) Ex-Presidents of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi, Ex-Prime Ministers and Ex Chief Ministers who are active members of the Party;
(v) Co-opted members. Members of the National Council shall have to contest election from their respective States. 5% members of the National Council shall be nominated from amongst professionals and social workers from different fields.
- The National Council shall have power to frame Rules, not inconsistent with this Constitution for regulating all matters connected with Bahujana Rashtra Samithi which shall be binding on all subordinate units. The National Council shall meet as often as required by the National Executive, or on a joint requisition addressed to the National Executive, by not less than 20% of the total number of National Council members, having full voting rights. A requisition shall specify the purpose for which the requisitionists desire a meeting of the National Council. A requisitioned meeting shall be held within 2 months of the receipt of the requisition, provided that not more than one requisition can be moved in one year. At any requisitioned meeting, additional items of business may be brought up by the National Executive for consideration;
- At all meetings of the National Council other than requisitioned meetings, at least 4 hours shall be allotted for consideration of propositions, of which due notices have been given by the members of the National Council, in accordance with the rules prescribed in that behalf;
- Not less than one-fifth of the total number of members shall form the quorum for a meeting of the National Council;
- Every member of the National Council shall pay an annual fee of Rs. 100/-. He or She shall receive a certificate, duly signed by one of the Secretaries of the National Council to the effect that he or she is a member. A member will not be permitted to take part in any meeting of the National Council, Subjects Committee or Plenary Session, without paying the fee.
- The National Council shall meet as the Subjects Committee under the Chairmanship of the President, immediately preceding the Plenary Session. The National Executive shall submit to the Subjects Committee the program of work, including the draft resolutions, for Bahujana Rashtra Samithi Plenary Session;
- As far as possible, four hours shall be allotted for consideration of the propositions, of which due notice shall be given by the State Councils or the members of the National Council.
All members of the State Councils and the National Council shall be delegates to the Plenary Session.
ARTICLE XVI :
- A Plenary Session of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi shall ordinarily be held once in two years on the 1st of May and at a place to be decided upon by the National Executive;
- The Plenary Session shall consist of the President and all other delegates; 3. The Plenary Session shall consider resolutions, recommended to it for
adoption by the Subjects Committee in the first instance. Thereafter, the Session shall take up any substantive motion, not included in the draft resolutions referred to above, only when 50 members, before the commencement of the day’s sitting, request the President in writing to allow them to place the motion before the Session. However, no such motion shall be allowed, unless it has been previously discussed at the meeting of the Subjects Committee and received the support of at least a third of the members then present at the Subjects Committee meeting;
- The State Council, in whose jurisdiction the Plenary Session is held, shall act as the Reception Committee and may co-opt additional members for the purpose;
- The Reception Committee shall make all necessary arrangements, including collection of funds, of which separate and full accounts shall be maintained. These accounts shall be audited by the auditors appointed by the National Executive within six months of the Session;
- Surplus funds and assets shall be divided between the National Council and the State Council equally.
- Special Session of the party may be held, if the National Council so decides or if a majority of the State Councils, through their resolutions, make a request to the President, to convene such a special Session for discussion of the agenda specified in the resolution;
- Delegates to the Plenary Session shall be the delegates for the Special Session;
- Such a Session shall be organized by the State Council of the State selected for holding the Session.
Election of the President
- For election of the President the National Executive shall appoint a Returning Officer who shall not hold any office bearer’s post at the National level for two years. The Returning Officer shall appoint Presiding Officers and make arrangements for the poll, as per rules prescribed;
- Any ten members of the National Council, may jointly propose the name of any member of the National Council for election as President of the Party. Such proposal must reach the Returning Officer, appointed by the National Executive, in accordance with the rules prescribed;
- After eliminating the names of those who have withdrawn, he shall publish the names of the remaining candidates. If, after’ elimination, there remains only one candidate, he shall be declared duly elected as President of the Party;
- On a date fixed by the National Executive, which shall not ordinarily be less than seven days, after the final publication of the names of contesting candidates, each member of the National Council shall be entitled to record, for the election of the President, his vote in the following manner:
On the voting paper, which shall exhibit the names of the candidates, record his vote for one of them. If there are more than two candidates, the members of the National Council shall record at least two preferences by writing the figures l, 2, etc, against the names of the candidates. In such a case, he may give more than two preferences if he wishes to do so, but any voting paper showing less than two preferences, will be regarded as invalid. The voting paper shall be deposited in the ballot box, provided for the purpose;
- Presiding Officers shall forward the ballot boxes to the Returning Officer. After the receipt of all the ballot boxes, the Returning Officer shall count the votes of the first preference recorded for each candidate. If a candidate secures more than 50% of the first preferences the candidate who has secured the smallest number of first preferences shall be eliminated, and the second preference, recorded by the voter who gave him the first preference, shall be taken into account, in counting the votes of the remaining candidates. In this counting, the candidates who secure the smallest number of votes shall be eliminated. By this process of elimination of the candidates who secure the smallest number of votes in subsequent counting, after the transfer of votes according to recorded preferences, the candidate who secures more than 50% of the votes shall be declared as President;
- In the event of any emergency arising by reason of any cause, such as the death or resignation of the President, elected as above, the National Executive shall forthwith fix a date for a fresh election by the members of the National Council as prescribed above. The new President shall be elected within a period of six months. Until a new President is elected, the National Executive shall elect an acting President from amongst its own members;
- The President shall preside over the Plenary Session or Special Session of the Party. He shall exercise all the powers of the National Executive, when it is not in Session.
- The National Executive shall consist of the President and seventy four members elected by the National Council, as per rules prescribed by the National Executive. The President shall appoint three Vice Presidents, a Treasurer, a Secretary-General, and not more than ten General Secretaries from amongst the members of the National Executive. He may also appoint not more than ten Secretaries.
- The quorum for a meeting of the National Executive shall be fifteen.
- The National Executive shall be the highest Executive authority of the Party and shall have the power to carry out the policies and programs, laid down by the Plenary Session or the Special Session or by the National Council and shall be responsible to the National Council. It shall be the final authority in all matters regarding interpretation and application of the provisions of this Constitution.
- The National Executive shall place before every meeting of the National Council, a report of the proceedings of the previous meeting of the National Council and also an agenda of business for the meeting and shall allot time for non-official resolutions of which due notice may have been given by the members of the National Council, in accordance with the rules prescribed in that behalf.
- The National Executive may appoint one or more auditors or inspectors or other officers, to examine the records, papers and account books of all party units. It shall be incumbent on all such units to furnish all the required information to the auditors, inspectors or other officers, and to give them access to all offices, accounts and other records.
- The National Executive shall have the power.
(a) to frame rules for the proper working of the organization. Such rules shall, as early as possible, be placed before the National Council;
(b) to issue instructions to various units, not inconsistent with this Constitution;
(c) it shall be the final authority in all disciplinary matters;
(d) in special cases, to relax application of provisions under Articles V and VIII. .
- The National Executive shall have the accounts of the National Council audited annually by an auditor or auditors appointed by it;
- The National Executive shall fix the date, by which formation of subordinate, District and State Units and the National Council shall be completed;
- The National Executive shall appoint a Board of Trustees for holding properties belonging to the National Council. The term of the Board shall be four years and the President shall be ex officio Chairman and the Treasurer of the party shall be an ex officio member of the Board;
- To meet any special situation, the National Executive shall have the power to take such action in the interest of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi, as it may deem fit, provided, however, that if any action is taken which is beyond the powers of the National Executive, as defined in this Constitution, it shall be submitted as early as possible to the National Council for ratification.
Treasurer: The Treasurer shall be in charge of the funds of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi and shall keep proper accounts of all investments, income and expenditure.
Secretary General Subject to the general control of the President, the Secretary General shall head the Secretariat and shall be in charge of the functioning of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi and shall be responsible for the preparation and publication of the report of the proceedings of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi Plenary Session or Special Session including its audited accounts, as soon as possible after the session. He shall prepare a report of the work of the National Council and the National Executive, including an audited statement of accounts for the period, since the last submission of such report and submit the same to the meeting of the National Council, to be held at the beginning of each year and have it circulated to the members sufficiently in advance of the meeting.
Scrutiny of Membership The State and District Executives shall arrange for periodical scrutiny and disposal of complaints regarding the enrolment of primary and active members, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the National Executive, but when complaints of a grave nature are reported to the National Executive, it may enquire into such complaints and take such action as may be deemed necessary.
The State and District Executives shall arrange for disposal of complaints regarding party elections, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the National Executive. The National Executive may entertain and dispose of appeals against the decision of the State Executives, in the manner prescribed.
- The State Council and District Councils shall appoint, by majority of two-thirds of its members present and voting, a State Returning officer and District Returning officers respectively at the time of the Election of the State Unit Presidents and District Unit Presidents;
- If any State Council fails to appoint a State Returning Officer simultaneously with the election of the State Unit President, the National Executive shall appoint a State Returning Officer. Similarly, if any District Council fails to appoint a District Re- turning Officer simultaneously with the election of the District Unit President at the first meeting of the District Council, the State Executive shall appoint a District Returning Officer.
- The State Returning Officer shall conduct all party elections in the State. He or She shall, in consultation with the Executive of the State and District Executives, appoint Assistant Returning Officers and such other officers, as may be necessary, for the proper conduct of election in the State. He or She shall also perform such other functions, as are allotted to him/her by the National Executive, from time to time.
- The State Returning officer shall hold office ordinarily for one term but he/she shall continue to function till a new State Returning officer is appointed or he/she is removed from office, in accordance with the rules framed in this behalf by the National Executive.
The flag of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi shall be three colored flag, Violet on the Top, Green in the Bottom and White in the Centre. There is a face of Bison in the Middle of White Portion of the Flag. Letters ‘BAHUJANA RASHTRA SAMITHI’ in Devanagari is inscribed in white in the Violet Colored Portion of the Flag. Urdu/Persian inscription of the name of the Party is printed in white in bottom portion of the Green color. On left and Right sides of the Bison Head in white portion of the Flag the Party Name ‘Bahujana Rashtra Samithi’ is printed in Telugu and English in Red Color.
The election symbol of the party shall be allotted by the Election Commission of India.
Central Parliamentary Board
- The National Executive shall constitute a Central Parliamentary Board, consisting of its Chairman (who shall not hold any other office in the Party organization at the National level) and 22 other members, including the President, the Secretary-General and the leader of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in Parliament for the purpose of regulating and coordinating the Parliamentary activities of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in Parliament and in the State Legislatures and for making the final selection of the candidates for’ Parliament, State Legislatures in accordance with the Rules framed in that behalf. The Secretary- General shall be the Secretary of the Board.
- All decisions of the Parliamentary Board shall be taken collectively. In case of difference of opinion, the majority decision shall prevail.
State Parliamentary Board
1 The State Executive shall constitute a State Parliamentary Board, consisting of its Chairman (who shall not hold any other office in the party organization at the State level) and not more than 14 members including the State President, the State Secretary General and Leader of Bahujana Rashtra Samithi in the State Legislature. The State Secretary General shall be the Secretary of the Board.
- Keeping in view the recommendations of the Committees in the Constituencies, the State Parliamentary Board shall recommend candidates for the Central and State legislatures to the Central Parliamentary Board. It shall also select party candidates for the election to the various local bodies, in accordance with the directions of the Central Parliamentary Board;
- The Central Parliamentary Board shall frame necessary rules, to give guidance in respect of selection of candidates and other matters relating to the conduct of elections.
Disciplinary Action Committees
A three member Disciplinary Action Committees shall be constituted at various levels, to deal with cases of indiscipline, as per the rules prescribed.
- All vacancies caused by resignation, removal or death shall, unless otherwise provided for, be filled in the same manner in which the previous incumbent was chosen and persons so elected, shall hold office for the unexpired term; 2. In the absence of any provision to the contrary, a Unit or Board, once it is properly constituted, shall not become invalid by reason of any vacancy in it.
Changes in the Constitution
This Constitution can be amended, altered or added to, only by a Plenary Session of the party, provided that the National Council on the recommendation of the National Executive, shall have the power to amend, alter or add to this Constitution, except Article II, by a majority of two- thirds of its members present and voting after due notice. The changes made by the National Council shall be placed before the next Plenary Session of the Party for ratification, but they may come into operation even before the ratification, from such date, as may be pre- scribed by the National Council.
AUDIT OF ACCOUNTS AND SUBMISSION OF ANNUAL FINANCIAL RETURNS
TO ELECTION COMMISSION:
- BAHUJANA RASHTRA SAMITHI will submit its Annual Financial Return to the Election Commission within six months of the END OF EACH FINANCIAL YEAR and the AUDIT of the Party Accounts will be conducted by an Auditor Empanelled with the CAG.
- The Fund of the Party will be used for Political Purpose only and the Party will abide by the Instructions issued by the Election Commission from time to time in the Maintenance of its Accounts.
Internal Democracy, Merger or Dissolution of Party
(a) All the posts shall be elected democratically and no post should be held permanently or hereditary. VETO powers admissible to none of the Members of the Executive Committee.
(b) Even if a single Member of any of the Executive Committees from Village, Mandal, Constituency, District or Central Committee differs with proposal to merge BRS Party with any other political party or to Split or to dissolve BRS Party, such an action should be treated as illegal.
(M. R. Ashok Kumar) (Saikumar Nandikanti)
PRESIDENT GENERAL SECRETARY